Robots.txt is a plain text file used to provide instructions to web robots (also known as web crawlers or spiders) on how to crawl and index a website’s pages. Web robots are automated programs used by search engines and other services to explore and index web pages for inclusion in their search results.

The robots.txt file is placed in the root directory of a website (e.g.,, and it contains specific directives that instruct web robots which pages or parts of the website they are allowed to access and crawl, and which ones they should avoid. While most search engines follow the instructions provided in the robots.txt file, it’s essential to note that not all web robots obey these directives.

The basic structure of a robots.txt file is relatively simple. Here’s how you can create a robots.txt file:

  • Open a Text Editor: Use a basic text editor like Notepad (Windows) or TextEdit (Mac) to create the file. Ensure that it saves the file as a plain text (.txt) format.
  • Define User Agents: User agents are the web robots you want to give instructions to. The most common user agent is the asterisk “*”, which applies to all web robots. For specific robots, you can specify their user agent names.
  • Set Allow and Disallow Directives: Use “Allow” to specify which directories or files web robots are permitted to crawl, and use “Disallow” to specify which directories or files they should avoid.
  • Add Sitemap Reference: You can include a reference to your website’s XML sitemap in the robots.txt file to help search engines find and crawl all important pages.

Remember that robots.txt is a public file, and its contents are accessible to anyone. Avoid including sensitive or private information in the file. Additionally, a poorly configured robots.txt file can unintentionally block search engines from crawling your entire website, leading to indexing issues.

The primary use of robots.txt is to control the behavior of web robots and improve website crawling and indexing efficiency. It allows website owners to prevent specific pages from being crawled (e.g., login pages, private directories) or to guide search engines to crawl and index the most relevant and essential pages of the website.

Properly configuring the robots.txt file helps ensure that search engines efficiently crawl and index your website’s content, leading to better search engine visibility and improved SEO performance.

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